Understanding Standardized Field Sobriety Tests

 

Most people are familiar with what happens during a traffic stop if a police officer suspects you have been driving under the influence of alcohol. An officer will usually begin by asking you if you have been drinking, and will likely follow that question up by asking you to get out of your vehicle and perform what are known as roadside sobriety tests, which are tests developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to be administered to individuals suspected of drunk driving. Understanding these tests is an important part of understanding your rights and in defending against potential Colorado DUI charges.

Standardized Field Sobriety Test

There are several roadside testing options available to law enforcement officials. However, the three most popular ones make up the Standardized Field Sobriety Test. These are:

  • Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus (“HGN”): The HGN is an involuntary jerking in the eye that naturally occurs when you move your eyes to the side. Usually this occurs when individuals move their eyes to the side at abrupt angles, but alcohol impairment can lead to this effect at lesser angles. Often this test is conducted by an officer asking you to follow a pen or flashlight with your eyes as the object moves from side to side. During this test, law enforcement officers will also try to determine whether or not a person has difficulty tracking an object as well as whether HGN is occurring.
  • Standing on One Leg: This is one of two tests given to divide your attention between two different tasks. Usually, it involves an officer asking you to raise one foot a certain distance off the ground and maintain balance for 30 seconds while counting. An officer typically looks to see if a person is able to maintain their balance without swaying, hopping, using arms for balance, or needing to put their foot back down on the ground.
  • Walk and Turn: Another of the divided attention tests employed by law enforcement officials, this test generally asks a person to take nine heel-to-toe steps in a straight line, pivot back on one foot, and return to where you started in the same way. Law enforcement officers are supposed to observe this test and look for eight different signs of impairment throughout the test such as not walking in a straight line, not walking heel-to-toe, or stopping during the test to regain balance.

While these tests may seem straightforward, they are usually much harder than they sound. Any number of variables can affect how well a person performs any given test, such as weather conditions or an uneven roadside surface. Additionally, medical conditions can also have an impact on how well a person performs these tests. Sometimes, police officers will also give suspects misleading or confusing directions to make the tests more difficult and ensure that they can find the necessary number of impairment indicators. While the Standardized Field Sobriety Test is widely used and recognized, it is not necessarily an accurate indicator of whether or not a person is intoxicated especially if law enforcement officials conducting the tests have not been properly trained to do so.

Nature of the Tests

One important thing to remember is that these roadside tests are voluntary as opposed to chemical testing which is mandatory. In other words, by holding a driver’s license you agree to submit to chemical testing and refusal to do so can result in automatic suspension of your license – but you do not have to perform roadside sobriety testing. If you choose to perform the roadside tests, any findings from them can and likely will be used against you.

Legal Assistance with DUI-Related Charges

DUI-related charges are serious criminal charges in Colorado, especially for repeat offenders. Facing DUI-related charges can be intimidating, but you do not have to face such charges alone. If you have been charged with driving under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs, it is important to remember that you still have rights that must be protected. Working with an experienced DUI criminal defense team is an important step in ensuring your rights were not violated and that you are able to provide a strong defense. If you are facing these types of charges, contact the Colorado criminal defense team at Tiftickjian Law Firm to schedule a consultation where you can find out more about what options might be available to you.  

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Manufacturer of Smartphone Breathalyzer Settles with FTC Over Product Accuracy Claims

 

Several years ago, an entrepreneur pitched his smartphone breathalyzer technology to a group of investors. The idea was to create technology that was accessible to everyone, compact enough to be portable, and advanced enough to provide blood alcohol concentration readings on smartphones for consumers on the verge of making life and death decisions. That started the ball rolling on millions of dollars in sales and gave birth to a new industry of similar competitors. However, independent studies conducted since the emergence of this technology and a recent settlement between the original inventor and the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) demonstrate that consumers may have been placing too much trust in personal breathalyzers.

The Claims

Fortune recently reported that the claims at issue in the settlement revolved around specific wording the manufacturer used in promoting its products. According to the article, the manufacturer had claimed that the products were proven through “government-lab grade testing” and that one of the two products under investigation was a “law-enforcement grade product.” The FTC alleged that the manufacturer was aware that its product regularly understated a user’s blood alcohol concentration. The FTC notes that it files complaints such as this when it believes that the law has been or is being violated and subsequent proceedings would be in the public’s best interest. The allegations of underreporting blood alcohol concentration in readings and the potential danger of users choosing to drive under the influence because of inaccurate readings led the FTC to unanimously decide to move forward with the complaint. The company in question stated that they voluntarily chose to settle the matter. The settlement prohibits the company from making future product claims that are not backed by extensive testing. The settlement also requires the company to notify consumers that purchased its product and refund consumers that request it.

Another article from Fortune published in 2014 tested a variety of these devices, including one of those related to the FTC settlement. The author discovered that each device provided a different reading, and while some were closer in readings to each other than others, none of them could be determined to be completely accurate. Ultimately, the safest decisions you can make about drinking and driving is not to do it. If you do drink, you should wait the appropriate amount of time for your body to process alcohol and you to become sober again so that you can safely operate a vehicle. While personal breathalyzers can serve as a reminder that even one drink, or a couple drinks over a period of time, can impair your ability to drive, they do not necessarily provide accurate enough readings for you to make judgments regarding your level of impairment.

Legal Assistance with Alcohol-Related Charges

If you are facing alcohol-related charges, such as driving under the influence or driving while ability impaired, it is important to work with an experienced Colorado criminal defense attorney that focuses their work on defending clients facing similar charges. For help with your alcohol-related charges, contact the criminal defense team at Tiftickjian Law Firm to schedule a consultation where you can find out more about the charges you are facing as well as possibilities for your defense that may be available based on your circumstances.

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Colorado Social Host Liability and Underage Drinking

It is something that has happened for generations. Kids and their friends sneak into their parents’ liquor cabinets and drink their alcohol. In some cases, some parents even provide alcohol for their kids and their kids’ friends. Many parents believe that as long as the kids are being responsible and staying in, it is better to have them drink at home with their friends than risk drinking and driving. However, issues arise when one of those kids decides to leave while intoxicated and injures him or herself or another person. In such cases, parents that provided alcoholic beverages to the minor that caused injury could be held civilly liable for damages related to the injury.

The Social Host Liability Law

Most people are familiar with the basic idea of a dram shop law. A dram shop law, which most states have, is a law that makes a business that sells alcoholic beverages to someone that is obviously intoxicated liable for damages that result from doing so. Colorado’s dram shop law, found in C.R.S. §12-47-801, not only covers business that sell alcohol but also includes provisions that cover social hosts. The applicable language of the statute from subsection 4(a) is:

“No social host who furnishes any alcohol beverage is civilly liable to nay injured individual or his or her estate for any injury to such individual or damage to any property suffered, including action for wrongful death, because of the intoxication of any person due to the consumption of such alcohol beverages, except when it is proven that the social host knowingly served any alcohol beverage to such person who was under the age of twenty-one years or knowingly provided the person under the age of twenty-one a place to consume an alcohol beverage.”

Other provisions within the statute require any civil suit filed under to be commenced within one year of an injury and limit damages to $150,000.

Basically, this means that if you provide alcohol to a minor or provide minors a place in which to consume alcohol and one of the minor injures or kills another  or damages the property of another  while intoxicated from the consumption of alcohol, you can be held liable for injury to a third person or damages to property. Provisions within the law prohibit the estate of the minor that caused injury or damage from seeking any compensation from you, but the family or estate of a minor’s victim may do so. So, you can be held liable for damages resulting from a minor that receives a DUI after you have provided that minor with alcohol or a place to consume alcohol.

Legal Assistance with Alcohol-Related Charges

While social host liability is a civil matter, meaning no criminal charges come from a civil suit filed under it, you may be facing other charges related to alcohol that can carry severe criminal consequences. If you are facing alcohol-related charges, it is important to work with an experienced criminal defense attorney that focuses their practice on working with clients facing similar charges. Contact the Tiftickjian Law Firm to schedule a consultation where you can discuss more about the circumstances of your case and find out more information about what options might be available in your defense.

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Miranda Rights and DUIs

Given the many popular television shows and movies about law enforcement and the criminal justice system, people can be inundated with legal “facts” that may or may not be accurate. One such example revolves around the often-misunderstood requirement for a law enforcement officer to read the Miranda warning to individuals suspected of DUIs. Many people mistakenly believe that when a law enforcement officer fails to read this warning, any subsequent charges will be thrown out. However, this is not the case.

Miranda Warnings

Miranda warnings originated after the United States Supreme Court case of Miranda v. Arizona. The case, like many cases that go to the U.S. Supreme Court, was actually a combination of several similar cases from different states. The question before the Court was whether or not “statements from an individual who is subjected to custodial police interrogation” would be admissible against that individual in a criminal case and whether or not procedures that assured an individual of their rights under the U.S. Constitution’s Fifth Amendment were necessary. The specific provision of the Fifth Amendment at issue was a person’s right to not be compelled to incriminate themselves in a crime. Ultimately, the U.S. Supreme Court decided that the Fifth Amendment extended outside of the courtroom and included custodial police interrogation. The U.S. Supreme Court also decided that safeguards to ensure an individual was aware of his or her rights were necessary, and so defendants must be warned of their rights prior to questioning. Most states have similar Miranda warnings, and most will provide both oral and written warnings to ensure that questioning is lawful. However, the decision in the Miranda case does not apply to preliminary questioning that occurs prior to arrest.

Miranda Warnings and DUIs

With DUIs, the issue becomes whether or not a person is subject to custodial police interrogation and, if so, at which point. Basically, most DUI questioning is considered preliminary. It happens shortly after a traffic stop prior to placing a suspect under arrest, and police officers can obtain preliminary information from a suspect without providing a Miranda warning. Drivers are free to refuse to answer preliminary questioning much as they are free to refuse field sobriety testing. If a driver chooses to answer preliminary questioning, which can include questions like, “Have you been drinking this evening?” then those statements can be included in police reports and used against you during trial. So, as for the question of whether or not Miranda warnings must be administered prior to questioning and arrest for suspicion of DUI, the answer is usually no. Failing to provide DUI suspects with a formal Miranda warning will not invalidate any evidence otherwise lawfully obtained, including responses to preliminary questions or other incriminating statements, nor will it automatically prevent subsequent conviction for DUI.

Legal Assistance with DUIs

While Miranda warnings are not necessarily required during a routine traffic stop where police officers suspect someone has been driving under the influence, DUI suspects do have other rights that must be respected. An experienced Colorado DUI criminal defense attorney knows these rights and can evaluate your charges to make sure none were violated. If you are facing Colorado DUI charges, contact the criminal defense team at Tiftickjian Law Firm to schedule a consultation where you can review the circumstances surrounding your charges and arrest as well as begin working on your potential defense.

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“Sleeping It Off” in Colorado Can Still Get You a DUI

 

Usually, people do not start off the day planning to drive drunk at some point. Oftentimes, people do not realize that they are too impaired to drive until they are already behind the wheel. Sometimes, it may seem logical at that point to make a safer decision and pull over to “sleep it off” until you are sober enough to drive. It may seem that this decision not only keeps the driver and potential victims safe, but that it also serves to prevent a DUI, but this is not always the case. In order to be convicted of a DUI, the state needs to prove that you were driving. For individuals who are pulled over on a roadway, proving that they were driving is usually fairly easy. However, there are cases in which the “driving” element is more difficult to prove.

“Actual Physical Control”

Colorado law omits a formal definition of driving, but courts have made several important decisions regarding the word over the years. One of those decisions is that in order for a person to be considered driving, he or she needs to have “actual physical control” over a vehicle, exercising physical influence over that vehicle. Five factors may be used in determining whether or not an individual has actual physical control over a vehicle, which include:

  • Where the vehicle was found;
  • Where in the vehicle the person was found;
  • Whether or not the keys were in the motor vehicle’s ignition;
  • Whether or not the motor vehicle was running; and
  • Any other factor which tends to indicate that the person exercised bodily influence or direction over a motor vehicle or not based on your everyday experience.

The decision also notes that no one factor from that list will definitively prove whether or not a person exercised actual physical control over a vehicle.

Several other cases have provided some additional context as to what qualifies as driving. Colorado courts have determined that individuals sleeping or passed out in their cars with the keys in the ignition are driving for purposes of a DUI charge even when the car’s engine is off. Further cases have also said that individuals on private property can be cited for driving under the influence, so even being parked on private property to sleep off intoxication could still result in a DUI charge.

Legal Assistance with Colorado DUIs

Facing a DUI can be an intimidating experience given that conviction can bring severe consequences, especially in situations in which you tried to make a safer choice but received a DUI charge anyway. However, by working with an experienced Colorado DUI attorney you will not have to face your charges alone. If you are facing Colorado DUI charges, contact the criminal defense team at Tiftickjian Law Firm to schedule a consultation where you can find out more about your charges as well as possible options that may be available to you in your defense.

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More Colorado Felony DUIs Resulting in Jail for Repeat Offenders

 

Colorado’s felony DUI law went into effect in August of 2015. This law made fourth and subsequent lifetime DUIs a felony offense punishable by lengthy prison time, especially in circumstances in which serious injury and/or death due to driving under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs occurred. Recently, Grand Junction’s The Daily Sentinel published an article about how local sentencing has progressed since the law came into effect.

Sentencing Requests Vary

The law leaves sentencing up to the discretion of judges who are directed to consider several different factors in handing down a sentence::

  • A defendant’s willingness to participate in treatment programs;
  • Whether or not other sentencing options have been exhausted; and
  • Whether or not a defendant poses an extreme risk to public safety.

Many criminal defense attorneys that work with individuals facing DUI charges, especially felony DUI charges, believe that prison should be a last resort in sentencing offenders. The Mesa County District Attorney was quoted in the article as admitting that prosecutors did not always seek prison terms for all felony DUI offenses. Instead, he indicated that prosecutors would look at all of the circumstances surrounding a potential felony DUI conviction, such as the number of years of sobriety that may have passed since the last conviction, in determining what sentence to request. Prosecutors in Mesa County look at each incident on an individual basis, and have recently begun discussing plea deals amongst each other to create more uniformity in their sentencing requests.

The article indicates that it is still too early to determine whether or not patterns have emerged in sentencing under the new law. Some individuals believe that the deterrent of the new law is the felony part of it that remains on your record, regardless of whether or not prison time is served. Felonies must be reported on job applications and in many other circumstances and can have a lifelong impact on someone that has received one. Even in cases in which prison is not part of the sentence, defendants that are convicted will still carry a felony conviction on their records and may be subject to lengthy probation that can include community corrections sentences or work-release programs.

Legal Assistance with Felony DUIs

Even a first-time drunk driving conviction can have extremely serious consequences. Felony DUIs can now involve lengthy prison sentences depending on the circumstances surrounding the offense. If you are facing drunk driving charges, especially felony drunk driving charges, it is essential that you work with an experienced criminal defense attorney that focuses his or her work on clients facing similar charges. Jay Tiftickjian has written extensively for law practitioners in Colorado working to defend those facing drunk driving charges and has worked with numerous clients facing such charges. If you have been charged with a drunk driving offense, contact the criminal defense team at Tiftickjian Law Firm to schedule a consultation where you can find out more information about the charges you are facing as well as potential options that might be available to you in defending against them.

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New Study Says Laws Requiring Ignition Interlock Devices Save Lives

For several years, states have had programs that require ignition interlock devices be installed after some drunk driving convictions. Ignition interlock devices attach to a vehicle and act similar to a breathalyzer. When a driver tries to start the vehicle, he or she needs to blow into the ignition interlock device and if the device detects alcohol on the driver’s breath, then the vehicle will not start. Some devices also require periodic samples while driving to allow the vehicle to continue running. While the laws vary somewhat from state to state, it is becoming more common that first-time offenders are required to use ignition interlock devices. According to a recent article from CNN.com, these mandatory requirements may be helping to save lives.

Mandatory Laws are More Effective

Citing a study from the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, the article says laws requiring every person convicted of a drunk driving offense to use ignition interlock devices are associated with a 7% decrease in overall drunk driving-related fatalities. According to the article, this is the first study that has provided evidence that links ignition interlock devices with a reduction in drunk driving fatalities. Researchers conducting the study looked at the various types of ignition interlock laws, which include:

 

  • Mandatory Laws: Tthese laws require every person convicted of drunk driving to have an ignition interlock device installed in a vehicle;
  • Partial Laws: These laws require some offenders, mostly repeat offenders, to install ignition interlock devices in their vehicles; and
  • Permissive Laws: These laws allow judges to use their judicial discretion to determine what offenders should be subject to ignition interlock devices.

 

Currently, over 20 states, including Colorado, have laws that require mandatory interlock devices for individuals convicted of drunk driving offenses that register blood alcohol concentration at or above 0.08%. 0.08% is the legal limit for drunk driving in Colorado, as well as in most other states. Researchers found that these mandatory laws are the ones that are connected to a decrease in fatalities.

Critics claim that other less comprehensive studies show that the effect of ignition interlock devices is typically limited to the first six months of use, after which time drivers often figure out ways to bypass the devices. They also claim that these devices do little to impact chronic drinking issues that are related to drunk driving fatalities, like alcohol dependence. Additionally, there is evidence that the devices can sometimes be unreliable because they have been shown to provide false positive readings, and a California study showed the devices were more effective when used on second-time offenders than on first.

Legal Assistance with Drunk Driving Charges

If you are facing drunk driving charges in Colorado, an ignition interlock device may not be your only concern. Drunk driving is a criminal offense that comes with serious criminal consequences, especially for repeat offenders. However, working with an experienced criminal defense attorney who focuses on defending clients facing alcohol-related charges can mean that you do not have to face these charges alone. Contact the criminal defense team at Tiftickjian Law Firm to schedule a consultation where you can find out more about the charges you are facing as well as what options might be available to you in your defense.

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2016 One of the Worst Years for DUI Deaths, New Technology Offers Hope

 

National preliminary DUI statistics for 2016 indicate that it may have been one of the worst year on record for drunk driving-related deaths. A recent article from CBS News indicates that 2016 DUI-related traffic fatalities may turn out to surpass the previous year’s once again.

The Numbers

It may take some time for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”) to finish compiling results about the number of DUI charges and DUI-related fatalities for 2016. However, according to the article, currently available numbers indicate that an average of 28 people per day were killed in DUI accidents in 2016. This could represent a total greater than 2015’s DUI-related death toll of 10, 265. Authorities are troubled by this trend, as 2015 saw nearly 300 more deaths than 2014. In fact, the NHTSA has commented that increases like this have not occurred in 50 years.

Colorado has not been immune to the increase in DUI-related deaths. Colorado law enforcement targets drunk drivers at all times, but certain periods throughout the year when impaired driving is more common are addressed with increased drunk driving checkpoints and increased police presence to catch impaired drivers as part of “The Heat Is On” campaign. While some of the notoriously heavy Colorado heightened DUI enforcement periods saw a decrease in DUI arrests and related charges, the state as a whole saw a disturbing increase in related fatalities. A recent article in the Fort Morgan Times indicates that preliminary statistics from the Colorado Department of Transportation show that 197 people were killed in DUI-related traffic accidents in 2016. That number would represent an increase of 15 deaths from 2015.

The Potential of New Technology

While still in preliminary phases, the development of new technology may help reduce the number of DUI-related traffic fatalities in the future. According to the CBS News article, ignition interlock devices that are often mandatory when convicted of a DUI may help drivers recognize when they are too impaired to drive. Such devices use sensors to detect a driver’s blood alcohol level and will prevent a vehicle from starting if the driver’s level is beyond the legal limit. Virginia is scheduled to begin testing such technology this year, and the technology could start showing up as a new car option as soon as 2020.

Legal Assistance with Alcohol and Drug-Related Driving Charges

The Colorado Department of Transportation has worked to educate the state that even one drink may impair a person’s ability to drive. If you have received a citation for driving under the influence of alcohol or driving while ability impaired, it is important to work with an experienced Colorado criminal defense attorney. The criminal defense team at Tiftickjian Law Firm has worked with numerous clients defending against these and similar charges. If you are facing alcohol or drug-related charges, contact the Colorado criminal defense attorneys at Tiftickjian Law Firm to schedule a consultation where you can find out more about the charges you are facing as well as potential defense that could be available in your circumstances.

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Legalized Marijuana May Combat Homelessness in Colorado

Marijuana has become big business in Colorado, and profits from the marijuana industry are expected to break even more records this year. Once an opponent of Colorado’s Amendment 64, which legalized the sale and use of recreational marijuana, Governor Hickenlooper now wants to use increased profits to help combat the growing homelessness problem in Colorado according to CBS Denver.

The New Pot Profits Proposal

Currently, the Colorado Department of Local Affairs estimates that there are more than 10,000 homeless people living in Colorado. The governor is proposing that the state carve out $16 million to target chronic homelessness across the state. The money would be used to provide almost 1,500 permanent housing units, behavioral health services, and incentives that will be aimed at encouraging developers to provide more affordable housing across the state. According to other state employees involved in the proposal, the programs funded by the extra marijuana profits would try to engage with homeless people at all points that they interact with the government including jails, charities, and while on the street.

The new proposal would not change the law passed in 2012 that created legalized recreational marijuana. According to language in the constitutional amendment created by the voter-approved marijuana referendum, profits from the recreational sale of marijuana are to be used to pay for industry regulation and to benefit the state’s education system. Instead, the new proposal would divert excess profits from the marijuana industry – specifically tax revenue – to new homeless initiatives. This would require the Colorado Legislature’s approval before any changes to the law’s language could divert money to the new initiatives.

Potential Downsides

Some individuals are worried about the availability of profit from the marijuana industry in the long-term. With a new administration that has sent mixed signals about the status of marijuana in the near future, they worry about undertaking more programs that could drain funding from education especially if funding sources are in jeopardy because of decisions from Washington, D.C. The governor and other state officials have assured critics that the change in marijuana profits will not deplete the amount of money going toward education but will instead utilize additional profits to make Colorado communities better.

Legal Assistance

While recreational marijuana is legal in Colorado, it is still important to abide by state laws that regulate the industry. Running afoul of those laws, or of any state laws regulating the sale and/or manufacturing of marijuana products, can result in serious penalties. If you are facing drug-related charges, including any charges related to marijuana, it is important to contact a Colorado criminal defense attorney that has experience handling such cases. Contact the criminal defense team at Tiftickjian Law Firm to schedule a consultation where you can discuss your charges and put their experience with other clients in similar positions to use for you.

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Marijuana Use Could Soon Be Legal in Public Places

Recreational marijuana use won big in last year’s election. While it has been legal in Colorado since 2014, states that recently have decided to allow recreational use have a lot of work to do in order to create regulatory schemes that work for their citizens. Several years after legalization, with The Denver Post reporting last year’s marijuana sales up more than 33% from the previous year as of November alone, another article from The Denver Post lays out Denver’s plan to allow social marijuana use in some other public places throughout Denver after voters approved an initiative to do so.

“Social Use” Ballot Measure

In November, Denver’s ballot asked voters whether or not to permit the social use of marijuana at yoga studios, art galleries, coffee shops, and other public places by asking them to vote on Initiative 300. Even though the initiative passed with 53.4% of the vote in favor of it, the measure did not include many guidelines for such use aside from maintaining the current legal age for consumption of marijuana at 21 years old and stating that marijuana will not be able to be smoked indoors. The Colorado Liquor Control Board has already stated that business with a liquor license will not be allowed to permit marijuana use on premises. That means that other businesses that do not sell alcohol, like coffee shops, will be the only businesses eligible for a license. In order to develop guidelines for permitting and subsequent use, the article points out that a workgroup of Denver business owners, citywide marijuana regulators, and recreational marijuana opponents has begun working on developing regulations. The measure did not set a time frame within which such regulations would need to be completed, so there is not specific target date for when permits will be available for social marijuana use. However, the article notes that supporters hope to see permits issued by this summer.

The measure that passed does not allow businesses granted a license for what amounts to public use of recreational marijuana to actually sell the product, as such licenses are dictated by a different regulatory structure. As businesses will not be allowed to sell the product and consumers will need to bring their own, opponents worry that businesses will not be able to control what customers are using. Opponents believe that will lead to businesses inability to protect guests that may leave a business intoxicated and choose to drive under the influence of marijuana or make other choices that could negatively impact the community.

Legal Assistance with Marijuana-Related Charges

If you are a resident or tourist, it is important that you understand and keep abreast of laws regulating recreational marijuana use in Colorado as well as in whatever local municipality you find yourself in. The state has provided information as to current guidelines within Denver, which can be accessed by clicking here. However, these laws can and do change quickly and may be different in other localities. If you find yourself facing marijuana-related charges in Colorado, it is important to understand that such charges can still carry severe criminal consequences. The Tiftickjian Law Firm has worked with many clients facing drug-related charges, and can use that experience to work with you, too. Contact the Tiftickjian Law Firm to schedule a consultation and find out more information about the charges you are facing as well as what options might be available in your defense.

 

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